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Sam Newman's site, a Consultant at ThoughtWorks

Posts tagged ‘clojure’

Some yak shaving while playing around with Riemann resulted in me creating my first leiningen plugin, lein-gentags. It uses etags based on instructions from Nurullah Akkaya’s original blogpost – perfect for improving navigation of Clojure code in Emacs. Feedback appreciated!

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In a previous post, I showed how we could use Clojure and specifically Incanter to process access logs to graph hits on our site. Now, we’re going to adapt our solution to allow us to to show the number of unique users over time.

We’re going to change the previous solution to pull out the core dataset representing the raw data we’re interested in from the access log – records-from-access-log remains unchanged from before:

[clojure]
(defn access-log-to-dataset
[filename]
(col-names (to-dataset (records-from-access-log filename)) ["Date" "User"]))
[/clojure]

The raw dataset retrieved from this call looks like this:

Date User
11/Aug/2010:00:00:30 +0100 Bob
11/Aug/2010:00:00:31 +0100 Frank
11/Aug/2010:00:00:34 +0100 Frank

Now, we need to work out the number of unique users in a given time period. Like before, we’re going to use $rollup to group multiple records by minute, but we need to work out how to summarise the user column. To do this, we create a custom summarise function which calculates the number of unique users:

(defn num-unique-items
  [seq]
  (count (set seq)))

Then use that to modify the raw dataset and graph the resulting dataset:

(defn access-log-to-unique-user-dataset
  [access-log-dataset]
    ($rollup num-unique-items "User" "Date" 
      (col-names (conj-cols ($map #(round-ms-down-to-nearest-min (as-millis %)) "Date" access-log-dataset) ($ "User" access-log-dataset)) ["Date" "Unique Users"])))

(defn concurrent-users-graph
  [dataset]
  (time-series-plot :Date :User
                             :x-label "Date"
                             :y-label "User"
                             :title "Users Per Min"
                             :data (access-log-to-unique-user-dataset dataset)))


(def access-log-dataset
  (access-log-to-dataset "/path/to/access.log"))

(save (concurrent-users-graph access-log-dataset) "unique-users.png")

You can see the full source code listing here.

Continuing in a re-occurring series of posts showing my limited understanding of Clojure, today we’re using Clojure for log processing. This example is culled from some work I’m doing right now in the day job – we needed to extract usage information to better understand how the system is performing.

The Problem

We have an Apache-style access log showing hits our site. We want to process this information to extract information like peak hits per minute, and perhaps eventually more detailed information like the nature of the request, response time etc.

The log looks like this:

43.124.137.100 - username 05/Aug/2010:17:27:24 +0100 "GET /some/url HTTP/1.1" 200 24 "http://some.refering.domain/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; en-GB; rv:1.9.0.9) Gecko/2009040821 Firefox/3.0.9 (.NET CLR 3.5.30729)"

Extracting The Information

We want to use Incanter to help us process the data & graph it. Incanter likes its data as a sequence of sequences – so that’s what we’ll create.

First up – processing a single line. I TDD’d this solution, but have excluded the tests from the source listing for brevity.

user=> (use 'clojure.contrib.str-utils)
nil
user=> (use '[clojure.contrib.duck-streams :only (read-lines)])
nil

user=> (defn extract-records-from-line
  [line-from-access-log]
  (let [[_ ip username date] (re-find #"^(d{1,3}.d{1,3}.d{1,3}.d{1,3}) - (w+) (.+? .+?) " line-from-access-log)]
    [date username]))
#'user/extract-records-from-line

user=> (defn as-dataseries
  [access-log-lines]
  (map extract-records-from-line access-log-lines))
#'user/as-dataseries

user=> (defn records-from-access-log
  [filename]
  (as-dataseries (read-lines filename)))
#'user/records-from-access-log

A few things to note. extract-records-from-line is matching more than strictly needed – I just wanted to indicate the use of destructing for matching parts of the log line. I’m pulling in the username & date – the username is not strictly needed for what follows. Secondly, note the use of read-lines from clojure.contrib.duck-streams – rather than slurp, read-lines is lazy. We’ll have to process the whole file at some point, but it’s a good idea to look to use lazy functions where possible.

At this point, running records-from-access-log gives us our sequence of sequences – next up, pulling it into Incanter.

Getting The Data Into Incanter

We can check that our code is working properly by firing up Incanter. Given a sample log:

56.24.137.230 - fred 05/Aug/2010:17:27:24 +0100 "GET /some/url HTTP/1.1" 200 24 "http://some.refering.domain/" "SomeUserAgent"
12.14.137.140 - norman 05/Aug/2010:17:27:24 +0100 "GET /some/url HTTP/1.1" 200 24 "http://some.refering.domain/" "SomeUserAgent"
42.1.137.110 - bob 05/Aug/2010:17:28:24 +0100 "GET /some/url HTTP/1.1" 200 24 "http://some.refering.domain/" "SomeUserAgent"
143.124.1.50 - clare 05/Aug/2010:17:29:24 +0100 "GET /some/url HTTP/1.1" 200 24 "http://some.refering.domain/" "SomeUserAgent"

Let’s create a dataset from it, and view the resulting records:

user=> (use 'incanter.core)
nil
user=> (def access-log-to-dataset 
(to-dataset (records-from-access-log "/path/to/example-access.log")))
#'user/access-log-dataset
user=> (view access-log-dataset)

The result of the view command:

Unfortunately, no column names – but that is easy to fix using col-names:

user=> (def access-log-dataset 
(col-names (to-dataset (records-from-access-log "/path/to/example-access.log")) ["Date" "User"]))
#'user/access-log-dataset
user=> (view access-log-dataset)

At this point you can see that it would be easy for us to pull in the URL, response code or other data rather than the username from the log – all we’d need to do is change extract-records-from-line and update the column names.

Graphing The Data

To graph the data, we need to get Incanter to register the date column as what it is – time. Currently it is in string format, so we need to fix that. Culling the basics from Jake McCray’s post, here is what I ended up with (note use of Joda-Time for date handling – you could use the standard SimpleDateFormat if you preferred):

user=> (import 'org.joda.time.format.DateTimeFormat)
nil

user=> (defn as-millis
  [date-as-str]
  (.getMillis (.parseDateTime (DateTimeFormat/forPattern "dd/MMM/yyyy:HH:mm:ss Z") date-as-str)))
#'user/as-millis

user=> (defn access-log-to-dataset
  [filename]
  (let [unmod-data (col-names (to-dataset (records-from-access-log filename)) ["Date" "User"])]
    (col-names (conj-cols ($map as-millis "Date" unmod-dataset) ($ "User" unmod-dataset)) ["Date Time In Ms" "User"])))
#'user/access-log-to-dataset

While the date parsing should be pretty straightforward to understand, there are a few interesting things going on with the Incanter code that we should dwell on briefly.

The $ function extracts a named column, whereas the $map function runs another function over the named column from the dataset, returning the modified column (pretty familiar if you’ve used map). conj-cols then takes these resulting sequences to create our final dataset.

We’re not quite done yet though. We have our time-series records – representing one hit on our webserver – but don’t actually have values to graph. We also need to work out how we group hits to the nearest minute. What we’re going to do is replace our as-millis function to one that rounds to the nearest minute. Then, we’re going to use Incater to group those rows together – summing the hits it finds per minute. But before that, we need to tell Incanter that each row represents a hit, by adding a ‘Hits’ column. We’re also going to ditch the user column, as it isn’t going to help us here:

user=> (defn access-log-to-dataset
  [filename]
  (let [unmod-dataset (col-names (to-dataset (records-from-access-log filename)) ["Date" "User"])]
    (col-names (conj-cols ($map as-millis "Date" unmod-dataset) (repeat 1)) ["Date" "Hits"])))
#'user/access-log-to-dataset

Next, we need to create a new function to round our date & time to the nearest minute.

Update: The earlier version of this post screwed up, and the presented round-ms-down-to-nearest-min actually rounded to the nearest second. This is a corrected version:

(defn round-ms-down-to-nearest-min
  [millis]
  (* 60000 (quot millis 60000)))

If you wanted hits per second, here is the function:

(defn round-ms-down-to-nearest-sec
  [millis]
  (* 1000 (quot millis 1000)))

And one more tweak to access-log-to-dataset to use the new function:

(defn access-log-to-dataset
  [filename]
  (let [unmod-dataset (col-names (to-dataset (records-from-access-log filename)) ["Date" "User"])]
    (col-names (conj-cols ($map #(round-ms-down-to-nearest-min (as-millis %)) "Date" unmod-dataset) (repeat 1)) ["Date" "Hits"])))

Finally, we need to roll our data up, summing the hits per minute – all this done using $rollup:

(defn access-log-to-dataset
  [filename]
  (let [unmod-dataset (col-names (to-dataset (records-from-access-log filename)) ["Date" "User"])]
    ($rollup :sum "Hits" "Date" 
      (col-names (conj-cols ($map #(round-ms-down-to-nearest-min (as-millis %)) "Date" unmod-dataset) (repeat 1)) ["Date" "Hits"]))))

$rollup applies a summary function to a given column (in our case “Hits”), using another function to determine the parameters for that function (“Date” in our case). :sum here is a built-in Incanter function, but we could provide our own.

And the resulting dataset:

Now we have our dataset, let’s graph it:

user=> (defn hit-graph
  [dataset]
  (time-series-plot :Date :Hits
                             :x-label "Date"
                             :y-label "Hits"
                             :title "Hits"
                             :data dataset))

user=> (view (hit-graph (access-log-to-dataset "/path/to/example-access.log")))

This is deeply unexciting – what about if we try a bigger dataset? Then we get things like this:

Conclusion

You can grab the final code here.

Incanter is much more than simply a way of graphing data. This (somewhat) brief example shows you how to get log data into an Incanter-frendly format – what you want to do with it then is up to you. I may well explore other aspects of Incanter in further posts.

3 Comments

I’ve recently been working on a Clojure application that I hope to open source soon. It’s been my first experience of using Clojure, and is almost certainly one of the most thought provking things I’ve done in a long while. One of the things that is still causing me issues is how to go about TDDing Clojure applications – or rather functional programs in general.

My natural inclination – for many reasons – is to use TDD as my process of choice for developing my code. Beyond its use as a design tool, it’s having a saftey net to catch me if I screw something up. It allows me to be a little more brave, and drastically reduces the cycle between changing some code and being happy that it works. I’m used to that saftey net – I feel lost without it.

Stuart Halloway said during his Clojure talk at Qcon SF that despite being a TDD fan he finds it hard to TDD in a new language, and I get exactly what he means. A big part of it is that you’re getting to grips with the idioms, capabilities, libraries and tools associated with your new language – and a lack of this knowledge is going to impact on your ability to write good tests, let alone worry about implementing them.

Typically, when learning a new language I try and write a small application that has a real world need. BigVisibleWall was my attempt to learn Scala – but it had a real goal. With BigVisibleWall, as with my current Clojure project, I started by implementing the system by just writing the production code. I’m pushing the limits of my knowledge constantly, attempting to understand the size and shape of the solution space that I find myself in with this new tool. Once I got BigVisibleWall working with a small set of features, I broke it down and rewrote it TDD style – at that point, I had enough Scala (and I mean *just* enough) to be able to do this without it feeling like I was wading through treacle.

I consciously decided to follow the same pattern with my Clojure project. Code the main logic, get it running, then break it down and rewrite it piece by piece using TDD. But then I hit a problem – Scala and Java are similar enough languages that my programming style didn’t have to change much from one to the other. Therefore the way I structured the code and thought about TDD didn’t have to shift much. In both cases I was driving the design of an Object Oriented system. With Clojure though it wasn’t just the language which was different, it was so many of the underlying concepts were different. Put simply, I really don’t know where to begin.

My first instinct is to start decomposing functions, passing in stubs to the functions under test. But this just feels like I’m trying to shoehorn IOC-type patterns into a functional program. But what am I left with – testing large combinations of functions? That feels wrong too.

So what about you lot out there in blogland? Any other OO types trying to make the switch and encountering the same issues? Or any FP practitioners for whom TDD is second nature? Or does TDD just not fit with FP after all?

So all the cool Clojure kids keep wanting me to use Emacs. The problem is that I haven’t used Emacs for the last 10 years – since, in fact, I had to support a C application on about 7 different flavours of UNIX. As you can imagine, I’ve since expunged many of those past memories.

My IDE of choice – ever since I joined ThoughtWorks – has been IntelliJ. Yes, I had to spend my time in the wilderness with Eclipse, long enough that I feel well placed to compare the two and consider IntelliJ superior for the languages I use often. La Clojure now seems to play nicely with IntelliJ’s Community Edition, so I’m giving that a try.

Ultimately, I’m learning a new language, one which often requires my brain to work in a quite different fashion than it is used to. As such, I’m trying to limit the number of new things I have to deal with. If, however, I’m missing out on something by not using Emacs, I may be persuaded to give it a go. So can anyone out there tell me what I’m missing?

I’m currently working on a personal project by way of learning Clojure – it’s actually a program to match up my itemised phone bill against my list of contacts to help me expense my calls. I find it best to have a real-world problem I need to solve to learn a new programming language. The problem itself is rather dull, but it did give me a chance to consider an issue I’ve hit with many other languages.

One of the core parts of my telephone expense program is the process of normalising phone numbers so I can match them up. What I am trying to do is something long the lines of:

Strip spaces, then add the missing area code, then internationalize it

So in Clojure there are a number of functions I’ve written, each of which take, and return, a string (the program is nowhere near finished, so consider this to be virtually pseudo code) :

(defn #^String normalize [str]
  (internationalize (add-missing-areacode (strip-spaces str))))

In Java, this would look like:

public String normalize(String str) {
  return internationalize(addMissingAreaCode(stripSpaces(str)));
}

The problem is that I, and most of the western world, read from left to right – with both Java and Clojure I’m having to read from right to left to determine what is being done. One system I use frequently has a construct which matches what I’m after – UNIX:

strip-spaces "44 1230 9183" | add-area-code | internationalize

So what other languages support this kind of construct? I suspect I could coax Scala into doing something like this, and it seems that it is right up Python’s alley (Django’s excellent templating system has filters which do exactly that). But if I want to use Clojure, am I stuck with this inside-out programming model? What other JVM-based languages would help me here – Ioke perhaps? It seems right up AINC’s alley, but that syntax makes me want to cry…

Update 11 Jan 2010: Thanks to Matt for pointing me towards Clojure’s ‘->‘ macro. This looks pretty close to what I’m after. So I *think* I should be able to do something along the lines of:

(-> phoneNumber stripSpaces addAreaCode internationalize)

Which is very cool.